With the closure of Newfoundland’s railway in the 1980’s, the Avondale Railway Station was shut down. The building itself, over 100 years old, has since been declared a Heritage Structure by the Heritage Foundation of Newfoundland and Labrador. The Avondale Railway Station houses two museums: a railway museum and a community museum. The five-car static train display contains a dining and cook car. The Community Museum exhibits artifacts of life in the fishing and agricultural community. The Railway Museum exhibits artifacts of life and work during the time that the railway was in operation in Newfoundland. The second floor contains a period bedroom and Newfoundland furniture. Information on the Avondale Railway Museum from the Heritage Foundation of Newfoundland and Labrador’s website: The Avondale Railway Station is a two storey Second Empire style building with attached warehouse, located in Avondale, NL. The designation is confined to the footprint of the building.Heritage Value The Avondale Railway Station was designated a Registered Heritage Structure by the Heritage Foundation of Newfoundland and Labrador in 1988 because of its historic and aesthetic value. Avondale Railway Station has historic value because of its association with communications and transportation in Newfoundland. The building was constructed either in 1870 or 1880 to serve as a repeater station for the first telegraph land line serving St. John’s. In 1898 the Reid Newfoundland Company entered into an agreement with the Newfoundland government to operate existing railway lines across the island. Avondale served as a freight and passenger station, being an important terminus for branches serving Conception Bay and Placentia Bay. The Reid Newfoundland Company played an important role in the development of transportation in Newfoundland. In addition to operating a mainline between the east and west coasts, the Reid Company also ran several smaller branch lines. The Reid’s were promoters of the pulp and paper and mining industries, as well as operators of coastal boat service and telegraph line. Twenty-five years after assuming control of the railway, the Reid Newfoundland Company began to concentrate on other development schemes and wished to rid itself of the unprofitable railway. In 1923, following much political maneuvering, the government of the Dominion of Newfoundland once again assumed responsibility for the railway, as well as the coastal boat service and St. John’s drydock. With Confederation in 1949, the Canadian National Railway took over the operation of railway lines in the province. Until its closure in 1984, the CNR used the Avondale station as a terminus for their passenger and freight service in Conception Bay.
The Bay de Verde Heritage House was built in 1896 by Mr. John Blundon and family of Bay de Verde. Mr. Blundon was a local merchant who owned schooners and traded along the coast. The house was built to accommodate his lifestyle. The structure of the house is a good example of Merchant Class Victorian housing built on a gable-ell plan with a five sided front porch and fine interior and exterior detailing. It was built in two sections. The main section with its larger rooms, higher ceilings and more elaborate staircase was occupied by the Blundon family. The servants quarters with its smaller rooms, lower ceilings and smaller staircase was occupied by both male and female servants, shipped men, sharemen and sailors. The servant girl’s bedroom is still intact. The house was donated by Mrs. Dorothy Blundon and family to the Town of Bay de Verde on September 16, 1996 (exactly 100 years after it was constructed). It is now preserved and used as a Heritage House.
Open: July – September The Beckett Heritage Property depicts a typical fisherman’s home during the early 1900’s with its popular mansard roof. The property includes a root cellar, well, small barn, hen house, and associated vegetable garden. The wood house, stable, and hen’s pen were modified but its present form still reminds us of fisherman’s self-sufficient lifestyle in this area. The home has a kitchen, pantry, parlor, and bedroom restored and furnished as it was in 1902. The rest of the rooms are used as a Veterans Gallery, a Fishermans Gallery, and two rooms to display general artifacts. The building was designated as a Registered Heritage Structure by the Heritage Foundation of Newfoundland and Labrador on September 15th, 2001, and was restored in the summer of 2002. Other local attractions: fishermen’s store
Today the former Carbonear Railway Station is home to a small exhibit of Newfoundland and Canadian railway memorabilia. It also houses the Carbonear island exhibit: “Traces of the Past”. The Railway Station has been designated an historic structure by The Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada, The Heritage Foundation of Newfoundland and Labrador, and the Municipality of Carbonear. With its narrow wooden clapboard and window and door placement, this one storey building is representative of the medium-sized, full service, non-residential type of branch line stations in Newfoundland. It is a rare surviving example of the smaller Reid Newfoundland Company railway stations.
Step back in time at the Colony of Avalon, settled in 1621 by Lord Baltimore. Admission includes archaeological dig site, Interpretation Centre, 17th-century gardens and Kitchen, conservation lab and award-winning gift shop. Experience Archaeologist for a Day hands-on packages. Nearby attractions and services include Lighthouse Picnics, Tetley Tea Room, dinner theatre, historic Ferryland, East Coast Trail, whale and bird tours, and sea kayaking. An unforgettable experience. Active archaeological dig of Lord Baltimore’s Colony of Avalon dating to 1621, Interpretation Centre featuring a selection of the over 2 million artifacts found to date, guided tours, heritage gardens including Gentleman’s, Herb and Vegetable, 17th-century reproduction Kitchen featuring costumed interpreters, fully-equipped conservation laboratory, an award-winning on-site gift shop featuring NL artisans and artifact reproductions. Archaeologist for Day packages and group tours available.
The museum is located in the former 1870 customs building. The first floor consists of exhibits showcasing the inshore Conception Bay fishery from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, complete with fishery implements and tools, and an exhibit concerning the Peter Easton, a seventeenth-century pirate who was based out of this area. Located on the second floor, is an extensive aviation exhibit, complete with aircraft models and photos of famous aviators who visited the community including Amelia Earhart, Wiley Post, and Charles Lindburgh. The exhibit also includes a selection of aircraft equipment such as a flare gun, and a logbook, which was used on trans-Atlantic flights. The floor also has a period-setting room, housing various furniture pieces from the Presentation Convent of 1853. On the third floor, photographs depicting the history of Harbour Grace, including photos of the Water Street fires of the late nineteenth century and 1944. Occupational tools and implements are also displayed relating to coopering, carpentry, fishery, mercantile, sealing, and whaling. In addition, vintage broadcasting equipment used in the community is displayed. Domestic themes are also represented, including various wedding dresses from the mid 19th and early 20th centuries.
Cupids is the site of Canada’s first English settlement—and that’s where the exhibits in our museum begin. Visitors are invited to follow our story through four centuries of evolving culture, struggle and achievement, told through multi-media, interactive and colourful displays—or through entertaining guided tours by knowledgeable staff. Exhibit highlights also include some of the more than 180,000 artifacts uncovered to date during painstaking archaeological work at the Cupids Cove Plantation Site, just a five-minute walk from the Legacy Centre and the site of the original Guy colony, founded 1610.
The Centre provides interpretation of the 19th Century cod fish hatchery located on Dildo Island between 1889-1897. Aquariums and a touch tank also house different species of marine life. Outside, a small heritage fish room has been constructed, this includes a fishing stage, landing wharf and a fish drying flake. A replica of a giant squid caught in Dildo in 1933 can also be seen here.
Drake House was constructed in the 1890s in the community of Haystack, Placentia Bay. It was constructed by George Drake and his brother John. Frank Drake, George’s son, inherited the property and lived in the building all his life. “ Frank Drake passed away on Sunday, March 17, 2002, six months short of his 90th birthday. Frank was a very special person, and his passing is the end of an era. He firmly resisted the resettlement program, calling it the `shiftin racket’ and decided in 1957, when all other families had left the community, that he would hang on there by himself. That he did until November, 1969, when he had his house towed across the bay to Arnold’s Cove.
The edge of avalon Interpretive Centre on Route 10 in Portugal Cove South is the starting point for your explorations at the edge of avalon. Come in to visit us and view a detailed interpretive map of the area, receive directions for hiking trails, and check out the bulletin board for special events and wildlife sightings. Our friendly staff interpreters are always ready to answer your questions and help you plan your day with up-to-date information and advice. A tour of the centre exhibits is the perfect “appetizer” for your day at the Edge. One of our interpreters will be happy to accompany you and tell you the story of the Edge of Avalon Heritage Coast from the dawn of life on earth to present day. With this historical overview and the wonderful sense of place that our local staff, bring to their interpretation, you will be ready for the main course: a day of wonder and discovery at the edge of avalon. The Myrick Wireless Interpretation Centre at Cape Race is a replica of the original Marconi Marine Radio Station built at the same location in 1904 at the invitation of the Canadian Government. The replica building houses artifacts and exhibits that interpret the history of early telegraphy and wireless radio in Newfoundland, with a new Titanic Exhibit and Gift Shop opening in April, 2012. The Marconi station at the Cape was the first land station to answer Titanic’s distress call and helped to coordinate the rescue effort.Cape Race has been a world-famous landmark for five centuries, appearing on maps made by European explorers as early as 1502. Before the days of wireless navigational aids and GPS, sailors used the sun and the stars to navigate. When mariners sailing from Europe saw Cape Race, they knew they had made it across the Atlantic and were finally able to verify their positions for the first time in weeks, or sometimes even months. The lighthouse at Cape Race is a national historic site. Mistaken Point Ecological Reserve contains the oldest and largest known fossils of complex, multicellular organisms from 579-560 million years ago. Access by guided tour only, 1pm daily from the Edge of Avalon Interpretive Centre. Tour is 3-4 hours and includes a 6 km return hike to the fossil site.
he Fishermen’s Museum was started in 1969 by artist George Noseworthy and a group of local residents who saw the need to preserve and promote the local fishing heritage that was so rapidly changing. A few years later, nearby Porter house was acquired and restored. An adjacent one-room schoolhouse, leased from the Anglican church, has also been restored. The Porter House is furnished much as it was when it was built and is a typical fisherman’s home of that period. Artifacts include fishing equipment, tools, kitchen utensils, and models of various types of boats used in the inshore fishery. Special events at the Museum include slide presentations of old scenes of Port-de-Grave, demonstrations of carding and spinning wool, matting and net-making.
Fishing For Success, Inc. is a nonprofit social enterprise dedicated to living, sharing and celebrating the traditional fishing knowledge and culture that sustained generations of Newfoundlanders & Labradorians. Island Rooms is a historic fishing property in Petty Harbour-Maddox Cove, Newfoundland and Labrador. It is the home of Fishing For Success, a not-for-profit that serves to teach youth and families about the natural and cultural heritage of Newfoundland & Labrador. Our focus is traditional fishing, small boat skills, hiking & snowshoeing in pursuit of berries or bird watching! And telling stories as you go….. “One day every child in Newfoundland and Labrador will once again be taught the traditional fishing knowledge and skill of their ancestors; that this will instill in them a sense of pride, of place, and a longing to protect and conserve their natural home.” Join us in the adventure of reconnecting the child in all of us with the shared human heritage of fishing.
The museum has displays, artifacts, photos, tools and implements depicting the early lifestyles of our area. They serve snacks and specials in their cafe.
Located on the eastern shore of Placentia Bay, the museum showcases the the community’s 300-year old heritage. The community was first settled by European fishers in the late eighteenth century to take advantage of the nearby fishing grounds in Placentia Bay and off the Cape of St. Mary’s. Exhibits at the institution include the American military presence at the Argentia naval base from 1941 to 1994, complete with photos of soldiers and activities on the base and various artifacts. Domestic themes are also featured, consisting of various dishwares, canvas and hooked mats, wedding dresses, and other household items from the early twentieth century. Maritime history is also featured including the Annie Haley, a fishing schooner from the community that went down with seven men in 1927 just outside the harbour. Other exhibits showcase education, the presence of Catholicism in the community, and sports history.
The “Hefford Plantation” display is self-guided and is located in the Town Boardroom at the Veteran’s Memorial Community Center. Main Road, New Perlican, Route 80, Baccalieu Trail. Signage is across from the building during the tourist season. Annual Heritage Day: August 6, 2018We have an Annual Heritage Day event which will be held on August 6, 2018, to coincide with Come Home Year events (August 4 – 12). Heritage Day is normally held on the 2nd Saturday in July every year. We will have a guest speaker, afternoon tea, our photo displays, artifacts, school journals, family photo displays, cemetery records, family genealogies, just to name a few of the many activities to participate in!
The Historic Ferryland Museum has been in operation for more than twenty years. It occupies a two-story structure which was built as a Bank of Montreal in the 1910-20 period. Soon after its construction, it was converted to serve as a Courthouse/jail/ police officer’s residence. In the 1970s it was turned over to a local heritage society to be used as a community museum. The Museum is located on the main road into Ferryland, and is close to the town’s other major heritage resources. Although it lacks extensive parking space, the location is otherwise excellent. It overlooks Ferryland Downs and Isle aux Bois. Location: Near the church on route 10 Ferryland, Newfoundland
Housed in the Mizzen Hall, the Mizzen Heritage Society produces various exhibits every summer which aim to educate and promote the heritage of the community. The Society’s collection consists of artifacts and archival materials which outline the community’s early occupational heritage, including the seal, inshore cod and Labrador fisheries, and the ship building industry of the late 1700’s. Domestic artifacts are also exhibited, as well as artifacts relating to the Mizzen Society’s history, including musical instruments and swords. The museum also provides visitors with a walking tour of the community.
The Municipality of Spaniard’s Bay Heritage Committee originally formed in 1996 under the chairmanship of Mr. Ed Neil. At that time, the group completed the Johnson Foundation history board project. The board is located at Veteran’s Memorial Park and provides information about the history of Spaniard’s Bay. Now known as The Municipality of Spaniard’s Bay Heritage Society, the group reformed in 2005 under the leadership of Mr. Wesley Gosse. It is now a member of the Museum Association of Newfoundland and Labrador and of the Heritage Foundation of Newfoundland and Labrador. The Wesley Gosse Memorial United Church Heritage Building has been named to acknowledge the valuable contributions Mr. Wesley Gosse (1935-2009) made to the community of Spaniard’s Bay. Mr. Gosse’s municipal, teaching, religious, sports, military, Royal Canadian Legion, and Heritage Society accomplishments are many. Within these organizations he held various administrative and executive positions, as well as being a founding member of several. Mr. Gosse’s memories of growing up in Spaniard’s Bay were often published in the local newspaper. He founded and worked tirelessly on behalf of the Municipality of Spaniard’s Bay Heritage Society. The preservation of this building and its use as a museum are a result of his foresight and effort. The Society’s mandate is to research, collect, record, and interpret all items of historical relevance to the municipality of Spaniard’s Bay. These are displayed in the church for visitors to view and reminisce. Each summer students are hired as interpreters and are available to answer questions and have a chat. The Society also hosts Sunday by the Sea, a weekly event with musical entertainment provided by local musicians. Each August, on the last day of Lassy Days, a Garden Party is held on our heritage building grounds. Several other events are planned throughout the summer. Community members and visitors are always invited to attend. We invite you to drop by, browse, and take in the view from the belfry!
The Old Carbonear Post office is considered to be one of the finest and best preserved example of the Second Empire construction style. The Post Office was built in 1905 to replace a larger one that burned down in 1904. Over the years the building served as a post office, customs house, welfare office, a bank, telegraph office, craft shop and artist’s studio. It now home to the Carbonear Heritage Society office and archive. The building also houses the “Tryphonea Nicholl” exhibit and The “Going Foreign“ exhibit, along with a small display of Carbonear artifacts. The building was registered as a heritage structure in 1988 by the Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage Foundation. It is characterized by a Mansard roof with dormers and a distinctive clock tower. It also has classic elements such as eave brackets and heavy wood moldings on all windows.
The Loyal Orange Association came to New Perlican in 1874. The Orange Hall which now houses the Orange Museum was built in 1931. Come take a look at a way of life for most Towns in Newfoundland. Orangeism at its finest. See replica of King William coat and hat. Also, parade dress Orangemen wore while riding horse, in parade and Ladies Orange Benevolent Association and Sir Knight dress with regalia.
The O’Reilly House was built in 1902 as a residence for William O’Reilly. In the 1940s, it became a government-owned residence for the local magistrate, and filled that role until 1984. In 1986, it was turned over to the Placentia Area Historical Society for development as an area museum. As a museum the O’Reilly House reflects over 450 years of a diverse history for the Placentia Area. Displays tell of the role that the Basque, French, English, Irish and Americans played in that history. Apart from period furniture and an old style kitchen to remind us of the early days of the house there are many photographic displays to help us recall earlier periods. There is a special exhibit of the resettlement of Placentia Bay and items related to notable citizens. Models of former community buildings and many artefacts further enhance the story. See such things as a tipstaff presented by King George III in 1772, a silver tea set used by Prince William Henry while visiting Placentia in 1786, and a Basque Will that is the oldest original civil document from Canada. Placentia Area Historical Society
The Petty Harbour Museum is located in the Town of Petty Harbour/Maddox Cove, just 15 minutes from downtown St. Johns. The museum is situated in the basement of the old school, which is now the Community Center and Town Office. “Many Stories in Tiny Houses” is a comment a student from China wrote after his visit. Our museum tells the stories of the people in the fishery, military and many walks of life. It includes fisherpersons, teachers, clergy, and even our cobbler, cooper and midwife.Check out our artifacts like the “Barbel”, which keeps you dry. See the rifle that “Shot the Polar Bear” and hear the poem that was written about the adventure.
The Western Union Cable Station, now known as the Cable Building, was constructed in 1913, extended in 1927, and was in continuous operation as a repeater station until 1965. For a brief period it was used by the School Board and then abandoned for over 20 years. In an effort to save it from demolition, the Bay Roberts Heritage Society acquired the building in 1996 and in 1997-99 completely restored it to house the Road To Yesterday Museum, the Christopher Pratt Gallery, and the Town Municipal offices. The Society received several awards for both the quality of restoration and the Museum. The building is now a Municipal, Provincial, and National Historic Structure. The theme of the Museum is the commercial development of the Town at the turn of the 20th century. It also has a Cable operation display, a dedicated Military display, a record of cemetery inscriptions, an archive, reproduced historic photographs, and an extensive collection of pottery artifacts recovered from Bay Roberts Harbour.
The Sparkes-Kelleher House Lifestyle Museum in Sibley’s Cove, provides exhibits that portray the life of an angler. Farther on, New Melbourne has compelling beaches with rolling surf and numerous old concrete root cellars.
The Fishermen’s Museum in St. Vincent’s was first was established in 1995 in the restored home of a local fisherman. It is now located in an old convent behind the church on the main road of the community. Throughout all the displays in the various rooms, the treasures of a way of life almost lost are revealed. Take a journey down memory lane and witness the culture and heritage of a proud and hardworking people. People with strong connections to the sea and the land anxious to showcase their legacy to both descendants and visitors alike. During late June and early July visit our cobblestone beach and watch the humpback whales frolicking a stone’s throw from the ocean shores. If you’re really lucky you may even be treated to surfers chasing the waves there! Take a stroll along the shores of beautiful Holyrood Pond; it’s a complete treasure in itself. You may even visit during a time when our museum committee may be hosting a kitchen or tea party. It’s a place to go!! The Museum is located on route 90 of The Irish Loop Drive on the southern Avalon Peninsula. It is approximately a forty five minute drive from Mistaken Point Fossil Site which is seeking UNESCO designation for the oldest Precambrian one celled fossils in the world! Other attractions along the route to the Museum in St. Vincent’s include The Ferryland Archeological site, Ferryland Lighthouse Picnics, Cape Race Lighthouse Titanic Connection and the historic Cape Pine Lighthouse near St. Shott’s and old Trepassey Town. Trepassey features a couple of eateries and a motel/restaurant. If you come the way of Salmonier Line, several sites include The Wilds Golf Course Restaurant and Hotel, the Salmonier Nature Park, Father Duffy’s Well Day Park, the replica of the resettled village of Oderin in St. Mary’s, as well as The Claddagh Inn and the Celtic Knot Pub and Restaurant. Then there’s the lovely Gulch Beach which features an antique “auto-weekend” midsummer each year. In the town of St. Vincent’s, St. Stephen’s Peter’s River, there is the Holyrood Pond Interpretation Centre which opens during the summer season and hosts a tea room and gift shop. Then almost situated right on the beach there is the cozy Whale Song B & B which is open year round to welcome guests. On top of Cemetery Road in St. Vincent’s there is a lookout which is a photographer’s paradise! The drive through several scenic communities on the way to the Fisherman’s Museum is one filled with the beauty of a rugged Newfoundland coastline, lots of little nooks and crannies, and very friendly welcoming people. Hours are flexible as the museum depends heavily on volunteer time. So if the sign in the window says OPEN feel welcome to drop in!
Co-located in the beautiful, historic town of Brigus. A single admission fee grants visitors access to both sites. The Olde Stone Barn Museum boasts an impressive collection of artifacts and models which showcase the local history. Visitors will find knowledgeable, friendly staff on site, as well as extensive genealogical records, Captain Bob Bartlett’s Pathé newsreels, and hundreds of artifacts dating back as far as the 15th century. Pinkston’s Forge is one of the very few operating forges in Newfoundland. Visitors are invited to watch as local blacksmith crafts small souvenir objects which are available for purchase. In 2014, the forge was moved to its current location next to The Stone Barn Museum. Originally constructed in 1889, the forge proudly displays artifacts and tools which were crafted and used by the original blacksmith.
The Turks Gut Heritage Conservation group is located in Marysvale, NL. It has on display a history of Orangemen with replicas and parade dress as well.
Interpretation centre provides information on Newfoundland veterans’ and their involvement in combat.
The Victoria Heritage Park has a general store, salt box house, forge, water wheel, church, railway station, post office, bandstand, Newfoundland pony barn museum, Newfoundland ponies and other animals. The Country Church is available for other functions. 1500 ft. boardwalk surrounds the park. We have an archives and genealogy room at the Town Hall. A hydroelectric plant built in 1904 still operates on the site. This Heritage Park is built on the site of a World War II POW camp built in 1940 and dismantled in 1943.A children’s playground is located across the street.
The Whitbourne Museum is housed in the old Whitbourne Railway Station. Sir Robert Bond, Prime Minister of Newfoundland from 1900-1909, built his home, “The Grange,” in Whitbourne. The Museum holds a large collection of photographs and artifacts relating to Bond and his estate. Notable pieces include a pool table with accoutrements, a writing table and numerous other smaller artifacts which reveal Bond’s Whitbourne connection. Other artifacts relate to the Newfoundland Ranger Force, which had its headquarters in Whitbourne, and also the Railway and local community history. The Museum also offers an outstanding 13-volume reference set, including videos and written history, which are available for viewing and provide in-depth information on the history of the town. Other local attractions include the Sir Robert Bond Park, featuring a rare lichen forest, as well as the Constable Robert Amy monument located next to the local war memorial. Visitors may also see the burial site of Sir Robert Bond in the local Anglican cemetery. Those interested in medical history may also visit the Markland Cottage Hospital, which now houses the province’s first winery and has recently been declared a Registered Heritage Structure, just a short driving distance from the museum. Location: Station Road, Whitbourne, Route 81 off TCH
Willow Tree Heritage Society Inc. operates the Heritage Museum, the Willow Tree Cemetery, and the Registered Historical Fishing Premises in the town of Hant’s Harbour, Trinity Bay. Hant’s Harbour has a history that dates back to the migratory fishery in the early 17th century. The Fishing Premises building was designated as a Registered Heritage Structure by the Heritage Foundation in March 1999, and represents a type of building that is quickly fading from the Newfoundland landscape.
Come visit the Wooden Boat Museum of Newfoundland and Labrador – a place where the history and traditions of wooden boat building come to life! We are located on the Avalon Peninsula, in Winterton, Newfoundland and Labrador. The first floor of the museum incorporates our new provincial exhibit, which tells the story of the humble wooden boat and its contribution to the economy and way of life in this Province. Accompanying the story are various full sized boats and models that show the many types of boats which have shaped Newfoundland and Labrador’s history. In addition artifacts which reflect traditional fishing methods and our maritime history can be seen throughout the Museum. Our boat building room houses the many traditional boat building tools and a boat which under construction. Also on the first floor take time to view our Indeavour Exhibit which details the 1612 voyage taken by John Guy (Newfoundland’s first Governor) to meet and trade with the Beothuck in Trinity Bay. In our Boat Shed take a step back in time. The smell of wood shavings fills the air. Here boats are built, like they used to be, with tools from the past, hand cut timber, and oakum. Talk with our onsite boat builder or a friendly staff member, who are always happy to answer your questions. The upstairs of our Museum showcases life in a fishing community. Here you will learn the stories of what it was like to grow up, live and work in one of Newfoundland’s fishing communities. Displays focus on agriculture, coopering, hunting, school life, and domestic life in an outport community. Our Museum also hosts numerous events and workshops. With the guide of a seasoned instructor, workshop participants learn the fundamentals of building traditional wooden boats. Our Visiting Artists Program highlights local artists as they demonstrate their talents – wood carving, painting, rug hooking and more! For more information, check out our website for a schedule of events, visiting artists and workshops. Our Museum doesn’t end at the doors. While in our community be sure to take in the Heritage Walking Trail. Enjoy local heritage buildings, historic fishing stages, the natural landscape, and nature.